If we look down on the Solar System from a point high above the North Pole, the way we normally draw it, we shall see the Earth and the other planets going round the Sun and the Moon going round the Earth. But if we look at it edge on, the orbits of the other planets are at a very small angle (here shown greatly exaggerated) to the plane of the Earth’s orbit.
The plane of the Earth’s orbit round the Sun is called the ecliptic, because we can only get an eclipse of the Sun or Moon when the Moon is actually on the ecliptic at Full Moon or New Moon - this is discussed on the Page on Eclipses and Transits.All the planets are always very close to the ecliptic, sometimes just above it, sometimes just below it, and twice each orbit actually on it.
Sam’s Games Room is at the bottom of the Lighthouse. It is completely round with bare walls and no windows, so he has covered the walls with posters. The football club he supports plays in blue shirts and he has posters of all the players: these are all at eye level. Above and below them are posters of other people, other sportsmen and women, famous scientists, astronomers and mathematicians, photos of the Moon and Earth and planets, Stonehenge, Harry Potter, almost anything he is interested in.
To celebrate the end of term Sam invites lots of his class-mates round for a party, and they are all in the Games Room. As they walk around talking to each other, eating sandwiches and cakes and playing games, as they look up or down they will see posters of lots of different people and things, but when they look at each other, behind the person they are looking at they will always see only a poster of a footballer in a blue shirt.
The same is true of the Sun and the Earth and Moon and the other planets and their moons. We can imagine the Earth (shown in blue) as being in or at any rate near the middle of the Celestial Sphere: whichever direction we look in from the Earth we shall see lots of stars. But if we look in the direction of the Sun or Moon or any of the other planets or their moons, behind what we see will always be the celestial equivalent of a footballer in a blue shirt.
The constellations which lie on the ecliptic make up the zodiac.This picture shows just the Earth (in blue) the Sun (in yellow) and Mars (in red).
As the Earth moves round the Sun the Sun moves through the whole Zodiac in a year, on 1st January it will be in Capricorn and on 1st July it will be in Cancer. The planets also move through the Zodiac but because both they and the Earth are moving their motions through it are more complicated, this is discussed on the later Page on Mars.
Some people call themselves “astrologers” and will, for a fee, read your horoscope for you based upon the positions of the Sun and Moon and planets, but this is nothing whatever to do with astronomy. Sam gets very cross when people confuse astronomy with astrology: there is more about this on another Page.
The Sun must be on the ecliptic, and the Moon and Planets must be on or very close to it, so if you visualise the path that the Sun takes through the sky during the day the Moon and planets must follow the same path at night.
Because of the tilt of the axis of the Earth the ecliptic is not the same as the Celestial Equator.
© Barry Gray September 2019