# Maths Pages

These Pages are designed mainly to help older students and adults who are having difficulty with some basic maths topics. Because they are intended mainly for older students some of them may contain more information than would normally be needed by or given to younger students learning about the topic for the first time. Because I have tried to make each Page self-contained there is inevitably some repetition between Pages.

Each Page is intended to be read through in order, but you can also go straight to a particular section.

For the reasons why I chose to put these Pages onto my Web Site please click here (mainly for Maths Teachers)

• The Pocket Scientific Calculator

• Natural and other numbers
About natural numbers, integers and ordinals, real, rational and irrational and complex numbers and recurring decimals.

• Triangles and trigonometry

About how the sides and angles of a triangle, and only a triangle, depend upon each other

• Trigonometry and the Sine and Cosine Rules
Some worked examples on the use of the Sine and Cosine Rules

• Cartesian (Rectangular) and Polar Co-ordinates
About the ways of giving the position of a point in two dimensions, and how to convert between them.

About slopes and gradients, the difference between them and how they are used by mathematicians and civil engineers.

• Roman Numerals
About Roman numerals and how they are used today

• Polygons
About triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons, with their names, regular and non-regular, convex, concave and stellated polygons, pentacles and Stars of David, the internal and external angles of a polygon, and their sums.

• Powers
About powers, powers of 0 and 1, negative powers, standard and scientific form, roots and fractional powers, and an introduction to logarithms.

• Positive and negative numbers
About working with positive and negative numbers

• Bases
About base 10 and other bases, including heptal, binary and hexadecimal, and their use in computers.

• Triangles
About scalene, isosceles and equilateral, acute, right and obtuse angled triangles, the interior and exterior angles, and how fixing the sides of a triangle also fixes its angles.

• Mechanisms and the shape of a polygon
About how knowing the sides, or angles, of any polygon other than a triangle does not fix its shape, and polygons as mechanisms.

• The Postman Problem and The Bridges of Königsberg
About whether it is possible for the Postman to walk every road in a village just once.

• Circles

About circles, the centre, circumference, radius and diameter, chords, sectors, segments and arcs, the area of a circle and the length of the circumference, the value of π, and degrees and radians.

• Factors, Prime Numbers, and Multiples
About factors, prime and composite numbers, prime factors, multiples, the Highest Common Factor, the Lowest Common Multiple, and how to find these with and without a calculator.

• Trigonometry and the Global Positioning System
About trigonometry, map-making, the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, and the Global Positioning System.

• Logarithms
About logarithms, common and natural logarithms, their use in calculations, logarithmic scales and graphs,, the value of e, and exponential growth and decay.

• A Note about these Pages, mainly for maths teachers